The Erickson Nursing Theory is a nursing Modelling and Re Modelling Theory introduced by Helen Erickson, Mary Anne P. Swain, and Evelyn M. Tomlin. The first published this theory in Modeling and Role Modeling: A Theory and Paradigm for Nursing, which they co-authored in 1983.
The Erickson Nursing Theory enables nurses to demonstrate their self-care knowledge and abilities in an environment of trust and openness. Using observation, she can assist clients in seeing themselves as competent, valued, self-directed adults.
Erickson’s Role Modeling Theory draws concepts from sources including Erickson’s Theory of Psychosocial Stages, Maslow’s Theory of the Hierarchy of Needs, Lazarus’s and Seyle General Adaptation Syndrome, and Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development.
The theory represents a theory-based clinical practice that focuses on a nursing practice driven to patients’ holistic health and their primary and growth needs. Let us dive deep into explaining more about this theory below.
Please read to the end!
What is Modeling and Role Modeling?
The theory`s title, Modeling & Role-Modeling (MRM), turned into coined all through dialogue amongst fascinated University of Michigan (U-M) doctoral students. Erickson rejected the title, “Erickson`s Self-care,” and different comparable suggestions.
She said that the paintings have to be remembered for what it stands for—taking note of the client, knowing the client`s worldview, and basing care on one’s understanding. She no longer needed the theory (and book) to emphasize the author`s name, charisma, and so forth.
Modeling and Role-Modeling, the language turned into derived from a solution to a query posed through Helen Erickson to Milton Erickson (her father-in-law). She asked, Where have I begun?
He responded, “Model after which role-model,” which turned into observed through an assertion indicating that it turned into vain to do something that topics in case you don`t begin through modeling their world. Only after modeling their clients` worldviews can nurses plan techniques that assist them to stay the lives they need with significant roles—i.e., role-modeling.
The Meaning of the MRM Logo
The authentic emblem of MRM, designed in 1981 with the aid of using consensus amongst Erickson, Tomlin, and Swain, suggests nurse and purchaser in surroundings that exist within the universe, taking into consideration destiny boom and enlargement of the paradigm.
It has the following meaning:
- The persons, hands interconnected, represent the human need for mutuality and reciprocity, or in clean language, connections with others without losing oneself (this is affiliated-individuation [A-I]).
- The hand amplifies the nurse`s- care provider as a facilitator now, not a regulator. The nurse`s assignment is to help people heal and expand at their non-public charge and in their non-public time.
- The arm represents the capacity to facilitate some other individual throughout time and area. When paintings with people, as defined in MRM, we often “seed” boom that isn’t observed right away; however, alternate can also arise because of something we communicate. Thus, our capacity to affect other individuals’ lifestyles is significant through the years and area. As Watzlawick (1967) says, “You can not now no longer communicate.” Thus, if both members of the dyad perceive that a verbal exchange has occurred, it can affect even if one isn’t intended. This could be useful or no longer rely on the individual’s perception in the long term. Thus, the emblem has a long arm.
What are the Different Faces of Role Modeling?
The MRM grief process is guided by fixed exercise ideas aligned with exercise targets and final results expectancies or intervention goals. (Specific info are to be had in Erickson, Tomlin & Swain, 1983/2009: Modeling and Role-Modeling: A Theory and Paradigm for Nursing (pp.169 -171) and multiplied on in Erickson, H. (Ed) 2006: Modeling and Role-Modeling: A View from the client’s world or her world.
The evaluation rationale is to benefit facts to assist the nurse in apprehending the customer`s angle of the foundation of the problem, what has induced it, and what’s going to help. The intervention rationale is to facilitate increase and healing.
The final result is a better degree of well-being, an experience of hope, and a projection of self into the future. This is real in all instances and while the customer takes the ultimate breath.
Information wanted for exercise is obtained by asking the patron questions on four domains: description of the situation, expectations, resource potential, and goals and lie tasks.
Once obtained, styles within-side the data are explored to discover the individual`s capacity to deal with cutting-edge and rising stressors and the sources the character has brought on the way to facilitate healthful coping and adaptation. Data are prepared round key constructs: Affiliated-Individuation and Potential Adaptive status.
Interactions/ Aims of Interventions
As nurses seek information styles, they provoke a formula of techniques to make sure that people have the assets had to deal with ongoing pressure and rising stressors and make stronger their want for affiliated individuation. Specific intervention/interplay objectives are designed to make plans and implement worrying actions.
1. Paraprofessional education.
2. Promotion of positive orientation.
3. Affirmation and promotion of strengths.
4. Negative diagnosis, interpretation, and treatment from flexibility making plans.
5. Exercise strategies during stressful events to let them own all possible amounts.
6. Partnership with physicians or other health care workers.
Two key constructs in MRM offer steerage for nurses as they proactively purpose to facilitate growth, development, coping, and healing:
- Adaptation Potential, and
Adaptation entails change, regularly happening on the cell level. The transformation can manufacture new assets that buffer the man or woman from similar consequences of the equal or comparable stressors.
While nurses have usually been capable of discovering while customers are stressed, a device changed into had to decide their potential to mobilize resources had to facilitate coping.
The Adaptive Potential Assessment Model (APAM) changed into advanced so nurses could make those distinctions. It does now no longer check the character of the self-care resources. However, as a substitute, it distinguishes:
(a) among the ones in pressure from folks that are now no longer (Arousal or Impoverishment), and
(b) the potential of these in pressure to mobilize assets had to cope in this kind of manner that wholesome version may be enhanced (Equilibrium). These paintings changed into an extrapolation and synthesis of the images of Selye, Engel, and Seligman.
Affiliated-Individuation (A-I), found through serendipity from studies and exercise and coined through H. Erickson, is the human`s lifetime want for stability among the inherent pressure for a significant association with another(s) and the inherent tension for a unique, self-sufficient self-identity.
This stability among the two drives takes place on the equal time, adjustments throughout the lifespan, contemporary and destiny relationships, personal growth, and self-fulfillment. A-I depends on the interface amongst one`s:
(a) want status,
(b) nature and adequacy of to be had attachment objects, and
(c) developmental tasks obtained from assignment resolution.
Each is important to facilitate wholesome coping, adaptation, and extrude inherent within-side the human being.
- Inherent needs: Unmet basic needs affect human yearning for growth and self-fulfillment. Essential need satisfaction is the solution to this- Maslow’s Theory of human needs.
- Attachment-Loss-Attachment Processes (ALAP): Unconditional acceptance and the psychosocial stages in the morbid grief process of losing attachment objects are real, perceived, and threatened. From Lindemann, Winnicott, Bowlby works.
- Developmental tasks/ stages: The ability to resolve developmental tasks utilize the energy of dissociated elements to equip a person to cope with unmet needs, loss, and anxieties. This is accomplished via change up into different tactics regarding side-by-side resolution. From Piaget and Erickson Nursing Theory.
The Erickson Nursing Theory postulates that there are inherent, dynamic family members amongst want satisfaction, want assets, attachment-objects, loss-resolution, and developmental residual that impact one`s capacity to mobilize resources needed and foster a wholesome kingdom of affiliated individuation throughout the lifestyles-span.
These include individual, lifestyle occasions, and perceived assets’ availability from internal and external sources.
Selected theoritical proportions from the Erickson Nursing Theory that Modeling recognizes are:
- Long-term grief processes end in morbid grief.
- Unmet needs interfere with resource mobilization.
- Resolution of unmet needs is attained dependent on the current state.
- Feeling worthy results in futurity.
- Distressors happen due to unmet basic needs, while stressors come from unmet growth needs.
- Regulated balance is possible through healthy alliances with members of the family system.
- Perceived control of the grief process changes the total relationship.
- Individuals’ ability to mobilize resources depends on the composition of depressive personalities.
What are the 5 Goals of Nursing Intervention in Erickson Nursing Theory?
The five goals of nursing intervention in the Erickson Nursing Theory are:
1. To build trust.
2. To promote the patient’s positive orientation.
3. To promote the patient’s control.
4. To affirm and promote the patient’s strengths.
5. To set mutual, health-directed goals.
What are the Key Components of Nursing Interventions?
1. Assessment: The nurse practitioner scans for resources.
2. Intervention: The nurse practitioner offers interventions that target the apparent unmet needs within the patient’s existence experience, thereby facilitating the resolution of external or internal factors that result in distress being experienced by patients from past experiences or current situations. Person-centered holistic caring should be offered to these patients.
3. Diagnoses: Positive orientation promote holistic nursing. Diagnoses should be included.
4. Planning: Task resolution and cognitive stages repeatedly facilitate this action, decisions regarding relationship development. Being in control of behaviors enables patient-professional agreements on meeting repeated needs satisfaction using available resources.
5. Implementation: Self-care actions empower patients to assume control. This action enables the nurse practitioner to advocate for positive change and be a professional caretaker within the relationship.
6. Evaluation: Evaluating basic needs status allows the nurse practitioner to make adjustments in behavior. Additionally, evaluating steps taken
Erickson Nursing Theory: Similarities and Differences Among People
Commonalities Among People
Holism: People may be holistic or mechanistic. They may seek health in every aspect of their existing experience or desire to control events and outcomes by selecting from available resources within a situation (the way people work).
Affiliated-individuation: People may be affiliated-individuation and chameleon (multi-faceted). They change their approach several times before reaching a final disquisition.
Basic and Growth Needs: People may be basic needs or growth-motivated. Essential market-based motivation operates by exerting willful control over outcome characteristics such as food, water, and shelter to live in conditions that meet their organism’s potential to sustain existence within defined time frames (survival). Growth motivated people to define better subjective identities that occur with new relationships independent of one’s past experiences/situations experienced.
Attachment-Loss-Attachment Processes: People may be primarily attachment-loss or ambisensial.
Psychosocial Stages: The chronological, inherent, and sequential stages of human development. The chronometric nature of the product and the sequential steps each person must experience to reach a final state.
Cognitive stages: From Piaget’s theory, people may have six cognitive steps. The formal operational, preoperational, and concrete-operational (leading to finalist formation), sensorimotor, preoperative or active working, and mental growth/legal operations.
Differences among People
Genetic endowment: Each person has a different genetic endowment from which they are born. This genetic endowment contributes to how people are oriented as well as committed.
Inherent endowment: People have innate endowments from their genetic inheritance that are, in varying degrees, reflective of socialization/role performance.
Model of the world: Each person’s perspective on the world comprises inherent endowment and their growth capacities and coping potentials.
Adaptation: People differ in their adaptational response to the world. One’s transformation will be influenced by inherent endowment and environmental occurrences.
Self-care knowledge: From hospitalization to coping with death, people are required to develop a course of action they can undertake while living within their world.
Self-care action: The kind of actions one undertakes in their self-care daily.
Personal distress: Having to deal with significant distressing occurrences for people cope with them using the general guidelines of psychological growth and development, individual adjustments such as learning new skills.
Self-care resources: Examples of self-care include financial and vocational resources, feelings of worthiness/worthlessness, and health-related capabilities.
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